Morrison Institute for Public Policy publications are available for download free of charge in PDF format. Requests for printed publications require a $6-per-copy fee to help defray printing and postage/handling expenses. Contact Eli Smith at 602-496-0900 or Elisabeth.S.Smith@asu.edu
A collection of Morrison Institute Policy Briefs, including such topics as school bullying, grandparents raising grandchildren, tourism seen as an investment, illegal immigration trends and school choice.
A collection of Special Reports from Morrison Institute, including "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor," "Richard's Reality: The Costs of Chronic Homelessness in Context," and "AZ Workforce: Latinos, Youth and the Future."
This signature series provides objective, in-depth analysis of and recommendations on critical “big picture” public policy issues of vital importance to Arizona. Each issue is designed to stimulate debate, inform decision-making, and be a reference for the future. The series is known for creative and innovative thinking about leading-edge topics. The series is written by Morrison policy analysts, university scholars, Arizona policy leaders, and national experts.
This occasional briefing series presents research and analysis on domestic violence issues in Arizona. To date it has focused on domestic violence, but it can cover other CJ issues. It is typically connected to one of our larger reports on CJ and reports on data and research generated but not included in the mail reports.
This Arizona Indicators product is a briefing series that analyze public opinion data from the Arizona Indicators Panel. Web-only in PDF format, “AZ Views” are available for download from both the MI site and Arizona Indicators sites. Using an ongoing panel of Arizonans, this series reveals insights into how Arizonans see a range of issues impacting their lives.
This quarterly briefing series covers public policy topics of importance to Arizona. Topics are developed each January based on an “idea session” meeting held with staff, sponsors and invited community members. The goal of the series is to provide Arizona leaders with authoritative, challenging—and user-friendly—information about current and emerging policy issues to inform leaders about challenges and stimulate discussion about policy solutions.
These updates to recent and past Morrison Institute reports provide additional information or supplemental data.
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January 2011 / Arizona is struggling with two related but distinct fiscal disasters. Widely recognized is the state’s budget crisis, which resulted from the sudden collapse of annual revenues after the real estate crash and prolonged recession. Less noted or widely understood is the state’s massive structural imbalance, which arose in large part due to unwise policy choices made during phenomenal growth years. This report by Brookings Mountain West and Morrison Institute for Public Policy examines Arizona's structural deficit and offers recommendations for repair.
February 2011 / This briefing examines the past, present and potentially future ways judges in Arizona are selected/elected. There are a number of bills looking to make both small and major modifications to Arizona’s judicial system. Potential changes include adding public comment and rulings information to pamphlets created for judicial selection, increasing the number of Supreme Court justices to seven and restricting the Supreme Court’s authority. There are also a handful of bills that would directly impact merit selection if they were successful this session.
May 2010 / This briefing examines the many assertions surrounding illegal immigration in Arizona by offering facts from several different sources.
This briefing is the second in a series that examines the many assertions surrounding illegal immigration in Arizona by offering facts from several different sources.
July 2010 / This briefing examines Clean Elections as a prime example of unintended consequences for ballot-box legislation prompted by Arizonans’ disconnect with elected leaders.
June 2010 / The executive summary of this report, To Learn and Earn: The Race for Good Jobs, was produced by the Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center with help from the Morrison Institute for Public Policy. It offers top-line analysis and results from original research and other studies.
June 2010 / Despite Arizonans expressing a deep suspicion whether their legislative leaders are representing their best interests, Arizonans’ participation in statewide elections continues to be among the lowest in the nation. This briefing shows just how few Arizonans decide the state's leadership, while at the same time offering helpful links and information related to voter registration and district identification.
May 2010 / This briefing explores the potential impact on Arizona from the upcoming supplemental measure of poverty by the federal government. The measure is being developed by the U.S. Census Bureau and will be published in 2011 by the Obama Administration.
This briefing explores the potential impact on Arizona from the upcoming supplemental measure of poverty by the federal government. The measure is being developed by the U.S. Census Bureau and will be published in 2011 by the Obama Administration.
March 3, 2010 / A health care provider assessment, or a tax sometimes referred to as a "bed tax," is an idea being floated as a potential revenue-generator for the financially strapped Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System.
Produced in partnership with St. Luke’s Health Initiatives, and the L. William Seidman Research Institute at the W.P. Carey School of Business, Truth and Consequences: Gambling, Shifting, and Hoping in Arizona Health Care combines research on the costs and benefits of health insurance with the stories of Arizonans who lack health insurance. The result is a compelling picture of lost dollars, potential, and opportunity. Truth and Consequences presents recommendations to Arizona’s policymakers that could help the state fare better in the future so that Arizona can stop taking risks on residents’ health and health care.
2008 / Maricopa County has experienced remarkable population growth for decades, and will continue to do so. But while expanding metro areas tend to pay close attention to physical infrastructure—diligently budgeting for roads, sewers, schools and the like—there is often a relative lack of attention to meeting the future demands for human services. Relying on the expertise from throughout the College of Public Programs, this report analyzes 12 critically important topics, including children and families, poverty, substance abuse, and Latinos.
July 2007 / Will Pinal become a distinguishable destination or simply a McMega drive through? If Pinal rises to the occasion, the result can be a vibrant, sustainable, and competitive place that takes advantage of its location. If Pinal fails to choose wisely, its bedroom community future is already visible in the East Valley and subdivisions north of Tucson. Which will it be?
Megapolitan offers a bold new picture of Arizona’s geography and its future opportunities and “megaton” challenges. This report presents a scenario for 2035 based on current trends. It analyzes the Sun Corridor and provides insights into the region’s global potential, water, governance, sustainability, and “trillion dollar questions.” It discusses the “tragedy of the sunshine” and asks the indispensable question: In 2035, do you want to live in the Sun Corridor?
Aging affects all dimensions of our society, but none so much as health care. Thus, St. Luke’s Health Initiatives (SLHI) decided to dedicate part of its Arizona Health Futures program to exploring Arizona’s capacity to meet the health care demands of an aging population. SLHI asked the Arizona State University School of Public Affairs and Morrison Institute for Public Policy to collaborate on The Coming of Age to inform Arizona’s policy leaders and residents about these critical issues. The Coming of Age engaged demographers, economists, public policy analysts, human service and medical professionals and citizens. Through its research, the team developed a realistic picture of Arizona’s "capacity to care" for an elder population. The results of the research are presented in The Coming of Age: Aging, Health and Arizona’s Capacity to Care.
The Achilles Heel of Future Economic Growth: The Workforce Development Challenge - What Is It? How Critical Is It? Who’s Doing What to Address It?
What is happening in Arizona’s economy is only beginning to dawn on most Arizonans. It is hard to imagine that good news about the economy is bad news for workforce development. Yet, the possibility of an "economic growth squeeze" and the need to address it soon have never been more clear. This report is meant to provide both a basis for understanding the The Achilles Heel of Future Economic Growth: The Workforce Development Challenge scale and importance of the workforce development issue and a basis for shaping a response vis-a-vis public policy, business practices and individual responsibility. The need for such a document surfaced during the Greater Phoenix Economic Council’s Economic Summit XII held April 21, 1998. The topic for discussion was the critical factors a region needs to remain competitive in the global economy of the next century and how Greater Phoenix ranks in those factors. The Summit’s 400 participants and panel of industry experts not only reinforced the importance of workforce for competitive advantage but also raised the need for a broader understanding of the issues, problems and solutions. GPEC, in response, commissioned this report to serve as a starting point for productive dialogue and concerted action. The report is not a labor forecast or tactical "how-to" guide on improving the workforce in Arizona; these are the tasks of others. The intention of this report is to alert all Arizonans that the workforce issue has a new urgency in the state, and that multiple players have roles in addressing problems.
The 6th edition of Arizona Policy Choices, Sustainability for Arizona describes sustainability as a defining issue and organizing principle for the 21st century. The report provides real-life examples of sustainability in practice as well as advice and insights of 28 policy leaders and thinkers from the public and private sectors. With essays from civic leaders, ranchers, developers, educators, business leaders, scholars, and others, the topics span a range that includes water resources, education, historic preservation, innovation, health care, green building, and urban planning.
Arizona Policy Choices volumes have gained notice in Arizona and across the country for creative content and clear communication. This tradition continues with How Arizona Compares: Real Numbers and Hot Topics. The publication offers comparative data and analysis on 10 public policy issues. With its scope and detail, How Arizona Compares will be of interest to many throughout Arizona and, I hope, encourage leaders and residents to discuss and move ahead on the state’s most pressing public policy issues. I invite you to study How Arizona Compares and to use this publication for dialogue and action.
What do we mean by "shoes waiting to drop?" We mean the trends that are already well under way — but that we can't quite see yet. These trends could overwhelm us if we don't spot them now and aggressively use our knowledge to plot our course for the future. The five "shoes" highlighted in the report are: A Talent Shake Up; Latino Education Dilemma; A Fuzzy Economic Identity; Lost Stewardship; and The Revenue Sieve.
A follow-up to The New Economy: A Guide for Arizona, this report offers a broad set of choices to help Arizona's people and places prosper in the new economy.
This edition defines, describes, and illustrates the "new economy".
Scholar Leo Marx coined the phrase the machine in the garden in 1964 to describe the relationship between nature and technology. Considering much of the writing about Arizona’s growth, it seemed an apt title for this volume of Arizona Policy Choices. The Machine in the Garden presents growth policy choices for Arizona along a continuum: Yesterday’s Growth the policies that have been used in the past; Today’s Growth the smarter approaches from around the country; and Tomorrow’s Growth cutting edge thinking about the economy and experiments in urbanism and governance.
Balancing Act: Tax Cuts and Public Policy in Arizona is a compendium. It includes original articles by Arizona policy practitioners and observers, reprints of pertinent articles by experts beyond Arizona, and a list for further reading. Articles of varying lengths and complexities are purposefully included so as to offer something to readers with different levels of interest in and knowledge of the subject matter.
"Immigration: From Global to Local to Kids" is the first issue of the policy briefing series, Forum 411: Engaging Arizona's Leaders. Migration is a global phenomenon today, putting the United States in the midst of another historic wave of immigration. As a "gateway" and a destination, Arizona is certainly not alone in coping with people crossing borders.
The Phoenix/L.A. conceit is deep-seated, chronic, and nearly always offered as something to avoid. Phoenix, a city often accused of having no identity, certainly has long known what it doesn't want to be. What is it we are so afraid of? All big cities have mixed images, but the über-negative view of Los Angeles is grounded in three attributes – smog, congestion, and sprawl. These problems and the comparisons between Phoenix and L.A. are examined in the second issue of Forum 411.
“Yin and Yang Political Science” focuses on the role and regulation of five state and local entities that impact the daily lives of Arizonans, often in ways that are noticed by few, including the Arizona Corporation Commission; Central Arizona Project; the Industrial Commission of Arizona; the Flood Control District of Maricopa County; and the Arizona Department of Real Estate. By looking at how these agencies came to be, how their purposes have changed over time, and how the state’s expectations have altered, this briefing revisits the enduring question: What Do We Want from Government?
“Great Expectations: Arizona Teens Speak Up,” the fourth issue of Morrison Institute for Public Policy’s Forum 411 briefing series, offers insights into the state’s 600,000-plus adolescents from professionals who work with them every day and from teens themselves. The success of today’s teens is particularly important because of the aging of society and Arizona’s high “dependency ratio,” or the number of children and seniors in relation to those of working age. Arizona has the nation’s second highest rate. Arizona’s teens have aspirations. The question is whether Arizona will help young people with public policies that address risks, reward achievements, and expand opportunities.
The fifth issue of the Forum 411 series, looks at the second-class status of behavioral health in Arizona. Treating physical and mental health separately adversely impacts all Arizonans—the majority who rely on private health insurance as well as some of the state’s sickest and most vulnerable adults and children who are treated in a public mental health system that has been criticized as underfunded, understaffed, and highly uneven in its quality of care.
The economic underpinnings in Arizona of housing, employment, and financial services have collapsed, as they have almost everywhere else around the nation, albeit deeper here than in most other states. How will we recover?
Edition 2, Issue 3 DECEMBER 2009 / This seventh issue of the Forum 411 series looks at citizen involvement as it pertains to community attachment, and why they are not the same.
From museum tours to farmer’s markets, softball to spiritual quests, Arizonans spend their personal time on a wide array of activities.
Jobs and schools are vital components of a healthy Arizona. Based on panelists’ responses, most Arizonans feel that they’re doing well on the employment front, but not so well concerning education.
Most respondents named crime and public safety as among the top issues, and nearly half said they thought crime was getting worse. Yet, despite strong concerns about crime, most respondents also said that their own neighborhoods are relatively safe places.
Survey results reveal that quality of life in Arizona is perhaps still high, but a shaky economy strikes at the basis of our sense of well-being.
Arizonans think best of local hospitals and community parks among government and community services. And while they don’t think particularly well of government responsiveness, most panelists believe community-based programs can prevent social problems such as drug and alcohol addiction, high school drop outs, property crime, and child abuse.
Two-thirds of Arizonans who participated in the latest Arizona Indicators panel survey are dissatisfied with how the Arizona Legislature is dealing with the state budget and tax issues. And of those respondents who keep close tabs on current news about the Arizona state budget, 80% disapproved of the legislature’s handling of the situation. In the past 12 months, attitudes about job security have shifted significantly, and for some panelists, so have worries about a declining quality of life. These new data are among the findings from a statewide panel of a representative sample of Arizonans just released in Arizonans On Edge…So Why Not Involved? The panel survey tracks how Arizonans are thinking and feeling over time. AZ Views reports the data and analysis from the survey. The panel is part of Arizona Indicators, which is a project of Morrison Institute. These latest findings include a look at how attitudes have changed about a range of issues in the past year.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - Same Rules, Different Results: Arizona Domestic Violence Convictions by County (Brief #1)
This first in a series of criminal justice briefs is based upon further analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data first reported in Layers of Meaning: Domestic Violence and Law Enforcement Attitudes in Arizona. The aim of this report is to present additional information and analysis in support of Arizona’s ongoing public conversation about reducing and preventing domestic violence and other criminal activity.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - Skepticism, "Fixability," or Just a Day's Work: How Arizona Law Enforcement Officers Approach Domestic Violence Cases (Brief #2)
This second criminal justice brief is, like the first, based upon further analysis of the data gathered in the preparation of Layers of Meaning: Domestic Violence and Law Enforcement Attitudes in Arizona. The findings presented here expand on the findings and issues presented in the full report. The aim of this briefing is to present additional information and analysis in support of Arizona's ongoing public conversation about reducing and preventing domestic violence.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - The Pinal County Domestic-Violence Court: Some Early but Encouraging Results (Brief #3)
Pinal County, Arizona created a domestic-violence court in 2002, in which felony cases are processed by the Superior Court in Pinal County, and misdemeanor cases are handled by the Apache Junction and Eloy justice courts. This report contains an analysis of data collected in the Pinal County Domestic Violence Database, which as of April 2008 contained 666 case records of domestic-violence offenders who were processed by one of the three courts.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - The Purple Ribbon Study Circles Pilot Project Evaluation (Brief #4)
The Purple Ribbon Council to Cut Out Domestic Abuse (PRC) is a volunteer-led organization formed in the Greater Phoenix area. In April 2008, more than 50 domestic violence issue stakeholders and community members gathered in Phoenix for the launch of the Purple Ribbon Brunch and the Purple Ribbon Study Circles Project. In May 2008, Eve’s Place Safehouse became the PRC’s national Launch Partner and 501(c)(3) fiscal sponsor. The PRC is now working to take the program nationwide (and perhaps even internationally) by 2010.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - Risk Management: Assessing Domestic Violence Suspects Arrested in Phoenix (Brief #5)
Domestic violence is Phoenix’s most commonly reported violent crime, but many suspects’ cases are dismissed almost immediately after arrest, and many others are freed from jail without the supervision recommended by a standard risk-analysis. Risk Management reports these findings among others from analysis of data collected by Phoenix Municipal Court. The brief looks at more than 6,800 surveys with DV suspects collected by jail personnel between July 2006 and June 2008.
Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona - Layers of Meaning: Domestic Violence and Law Enforcement Attitudes in Arizona
Domestic violence is a major social problem throughout Arizona, and a major daily challenge for law enforcement officers. Every day in Arizona, domestic violence injures victims, damages property, destroys families, breeds further crime and anti-social behavior, and perpetuates itself in younger generations. Like most states, Arizona has "criminalized" domestic violence (DV) by adopting laws and policies that bolster law enforcement officers’ arrest powers and require them to arrest suspects under certain circumstances. Most Arizona officers recognize the seriousness of domestic violence, and agree that it is best handled by police intervention -- having largely shed past "traditional" attitudes that discounted the importance of family violence. However, these street-level police officers and sheriff’s deputies also have a discouraging tale to tell: In candid comments from across the state, they report that they are skeptical of the ability of Arizona’s "pro-arrest" policy to reduce domestic violence, frustrated by a perceived lack of follow-up from prosecutors, and often at odds with victims whose predicaments they may not fully understand.
Issues in Brief on Behalf of Greater Phoenix Leadership - Growth Management and Open Space Protection in Arizona: Current Tools and Progress
Four major statewide "tools" to help manage growth and preserve open space have been put to work in Arizona over the past five years. These include the Arizona Preserve Initiative and the closely-related Proposition 303, as well as the Growing Smarter Act and its "addendum," Growing Smarter Plus. All four tools are based in large part on a concept known as "smart growth," which is generally considered to be a set of growth management measures that attempt to strike a balance among issues of economics, environment, and quality of life. Taken together, these four growth management tools make significant changes in the way that (a) city and county governments plan and regulate their lands, (b) citizens play a role in land use issues, (c) state trust lands are managed, and (d) open space may be acquired and preserved. Many of these changes will have long-term effects for the state. This paper provides a brief overview of each of the four growth management/open space tools, a preliminary accounting of major activities each one has stimulated, and a perspective on what can be expected for the future as expressed by a selection of growth planners and other leaders of growth management in Arizona.
For more than three decades affirmative action has been a part of the process of putting nondiscrimination and equal opportunity policies into practice across the United States. And, for much of that time, it has been controversial because of its actual and perceived features and their effects. This paper describes the current affirmative action debate in Arizona which has been prompted by discussion of a proposed state constitutional amendment to ban discrimination and preferences based on race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin. Interviews with opponents and from proponents of the measure and reviews of literature from the media and local institutions were used for this briefing.
Issues in Brief on Behalf of Greater Phoenix Leadership - The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and Arizona's Workforce Development System
The purpose of this brief is to provide information about the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), how it will be implemented in the greater Phoenix area, and the program's relevance to business. In order to put WIA in context, this brief also discusses the current Workforce Development System. Prepared by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy at the request of Greater Phoenix Leadership, the information contained in this report is intended for a business audience. It does not advocate any particular stance, make a policy recommendation, or suggest taking any action, but rather presents a platform from which the business community might choose a position.
Issues in Brief on Behalf of Greater Phoenix Leadership - Proposition 301: Promises, Progress, and Prospects
The purpose of this brief report is to provide information about a very significant education reform program and tax increase, commonly known as Proposition 301. Coverage includes the history leading up to the ballot measure approved by Arizona voters in November 2000, its status approximately one year after it went into effect, and its prospects over a 20-year life span. In short, this brief is intended to inform readers about the past, present, and future of Proposition 301.
The purpose of this brief report is to present a balanced look at current issues surrounding the education reform known as "academic standards." Prepared by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy at the request of Greater Phoenix Leadership, the information contained in this report is intended for a business audience. It does not advocate any particular stance or make policy recommendations, but rather presents a platform from which the business community might choose a position. The report is organized around four areas of interest: (1) the national context for academic standards, (2) facts regarding Arizona's standards, (3) the pros and cons of academic standards, and (4) specific issues and positions in the national business community related to academic standards.
This paper presents brief background information on urban growth management and analyzes certain current and differing viewpoints on how best to accomplish this in Arizona. Two competing plans have emerged recently. One is a citizen initiative in signature-gathering stage for the November general election, while the other is a proposal in draft stage that could either be passed into law during the current legislative session or could be referred by the legislature to voters in November, effectively placing it in competition with the citizen initiative. The initiative has been finalized and cannot be amended at this time; the details of the legislative proposal concept are subject to amendment and compromise during the legislative process.
Issues in Brief on Behalf of Greater Phoenix Leadership - Arizona’s Workforce Development System: Update and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998
The purpose of this brief report is to provide information about Arizona’s system of workforce development, the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), how the Act has been implemented in the greater Phoenix area and the program’s relevance to business. It is an update of a previous brief on the subject from February 2000. Prepared by Morrison Institute for Public Policy at the request of Greater Phoenix Leadership, the information contained in this report is intended for a business audience.
October 2008 / Richard’s Reality: The Costs of Chronic Homelessness in Context is modeled on the story of “million-dollar Murray,” a Reno resident who was chronically homeless over a decade. This report combines personal stories with actual and average costs for basic assistance such as emergency shelter and healthcare. Richard’s Reality also provides background on the more than 14,000 people—adults and children—in Maricopa County who experience homelessness each year and some of the public and private organizations that provide services to them.
Do Arizonans trust the police? How do we best describe the policepublic relationship in Arizona? These and related questions are the subject of this report, which was commissioned by the Arizona Peace Officer Standards and Training Board (AZPOST). National surveys, as well as an Arizona poll commissioned for this report, indicate that most Americans do trust police. But a closer examination of the relationship between police and public finds it to be remarkably complex, resting as it does on a fundamental ambivalence that both sides bring to it. Police, on one hand, are sworn to "serve and protect" the public, but in doing so regularly must discipline and compel some of them. The public, on the other hand, must obey officers and rely on them; but many also acknowledge that they sometimes resent and even fear the police. This report addresses the issue of trust in police in three ways: 1) reviewing national and Arizona-focused research literature; 2) analyzing the results of 10 focus groups across the state; and 3) providing the findings of a random-sample opinion poll of all Arizona adults.
Between December 1997 and April 1998, more than three-hundred Valley citizens participated in five Work Groups under the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI). Their goal was to devise violence prevention strategies in each of the domains assigned to the Work Groups (prenatal/early childhood, individual youth, family, school, and neighborhood/community). Each group met twice monthly to discuss research regarding what works and what doesn’t work, hear from local experts and practitioners, and discuss problems specific to Greater Phoenix.The result of these efforts is thirteen violence prevention initiatives organized around the five major themes below. Together, they form the framework of the region’s first comprehensive violence prevention strategy. (Note: This is an abbreviated summary. Please consult the PVPI Phase II report for more detail). Major Themes: (1) Fill gaps in school-age children's supervision and activity (2) Strengthen Youth Support Systems (3) Strengthen Parent Support Systems (4) Guarantee "Right Start" Services to All Phoenix Preschool Children (5) Strengthen Neighborhood Assets and Protective Factors
With unemployment up, consumer spending down, and governments facing revenue shortfalls, Arizona must become more competitive than ever before. AZ Workforce: Latinos, Youth and the Future, produced as part of the ASU Office of Public Affairs’ César E. Chávez Leadership Lecture, examines the “unfinished business” of Arizona’s workforce.
System Alert, sponsored by the Governor’s Commission to Prevent Violence Against Women, finds that, despite its successes, Arizona’s criminal justice system is falling short of achieving victim safety and offender accountability. According to the system’s front-line professionals, DV remains as big a problem as ever. Considering Arizona’s rapid growth, the consequences of failing to improve the state’s response to this extremely common violent offense will be substantial. As this research shows, criminal justice professionals and domestic violence victims have much to say about what those improvements should be.
In the fall of 1995, the City of Phoenix Police Department convened a special group of people known to be deeply involved with the social and personal aspects of domestic violence. This group, which came to be called the Phoenix Police Department's Joint Task Force on Domestic Violence, consisted of police and criminal justice personnel, social service and health care providers, and a number of interested community members. Task Force members soon began earnest discussions on how best to reduce the incidence of domestic violence-a crime that is, sadly, the number one call for police service in the City of Phoenix.
Hits and Misses: Fast Growth in Metropolitan Phoenix is the first product of a comprehensive effort to describe and analyze the region’s growth. The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy in Washington, D.C. presented the opportunity for this project to Morrison Institute for Public Policy. The story of growth in metropolitan Phoenix is a complicated, often surprising, tale. There is much to be proud of in the region. Yet there is also much to worry about, and much that needs to be done. Hits and Misses will have been successful if it becomes a catalyst for getting started.
Morrison Institute for Public Policy is coordinating a multifaceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative on behalf of the Governor’s Division of School To Work (GDSTW). One component of the evaluation involves public awareness and opinions of STW as a concept and a vehicle for education reform. In spring 1996, a statewide public poll was conducted to establish baseline measures of public attitudes toward STW prior to its widespread implementation in the schools and the execution of intensive marketing and education campaigns planned at both state and local levels. This briefing paper highlights some of the initial findings from the state’s baseline study of public opinions toward STW. A more detailed report is forthcoming.
This paper explores the issue of fiscal agency and its relationship to planning and implementing STW systems. It is intended primarily for use by Arizona’s state and local STW partners, and especially those who are rethinking their designation of a fiscal agent. The goal is to inform stakeholders in Arizona’s emerging STW system about other states’ experiences with fiscal agents.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #4 - Arizona Public School Counselors: How Do They Spend Their Time? Baseline Results
This briefing paper discusses counselors’ roles and responsibilities--that is, how they currently spend their time. The study will be replicated annually, with the hypothesis that if STW has the impact intended, then one should see marked increases in the time spent counseling students on work/career issues. A companion paper summarizes counselors’ attitudes toward education and STW and compares counselors’ attitudes to those of Arizona parents, businesses, and educators.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #5 - Arizona Counselors’ Perceptions of School To Work: Baseline Results
In October 1995, Arizona received a School To Work (STW) implementation grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education for the purpose of creating a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for Arizona students. Morrison Institute for Public Policy is coordinating a multifaceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative on behalf of the Governor’s Division of School To Work (GDSTW). One component of the evaluation involves public awareness and opinions of STW as a concept and a vehicle for education reform. In spring 1996, a statewide public poll of parents, businesses and educators was conducted to establish baseline measures of public attitudes toward STW prior to its widespread implementation in the schools. In fall 1996, Arizona public school counselors were surveyed as an additional constituent group. This briefing paper highlights findings from the state’s baseline study of counselors’ opinions toward STW--especially as compared with the opinions of other constituent groups who were polled in spring 1996. A more detailed report is forthcoming.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #6 - Arizona’s School To Work Solutions For Out-of-School Youth
The School-to-Work (STW) Opportunities Act of 1994 is intended to "offer opportunities for all students to participate in a performance-based education and training program." Nevertheless, certain populations remain hard to reach. In particular, out-of-school youth--students aged 16 through 24 who have not completed high school and are not currently enrolled in school--pose a unique challenge for emerging STW systems. This document explores the manner in which Arizona’s 13 state-funded STW partnerships (for FY 1996-97) are serving out-of-school youth. In addition, new system elements and regional STW plans for service expansion for this population are detailed. Innovative programs within the partnerships are also highlighted.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #7 - Public Perceptions of School To Work: First Year Progress
Arizona is in the process of creating a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for Arizona students. Supported by a School To Work (STW) implementation grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education, the state has until the year 2000--when federal STW federal legislation sunsets--to accomplish this goal. As part of creating a state system, Arizona--under the auspices of the Governor’s Division of School To Work (GDSTW)--has invested in developing regional partnerships. Morrison Institute for Public Policy is coordinating a multi-faceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative on behalf of the GDSTW. One component of the evaluation involves public awareness and opinions of STW as a concept and a vehicle for education reform. In spring 1996, a statewide public poll was conducted to establish baseline measures of public attitudes toward STW prior to its widespread implementation. In spring 1997, the polling was repeated. This briefing paper highlights some initial findings from the state’s first annual comparative study of public opinions toward STW. A more detailed report is forthcoming.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #8 - Seventh Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Awareness and Exploration Activities in Arizona Schools
Arizona is in the process of creating a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for Arizona students. Supported by a School To Work (STW) grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education, the state is implementing its STW initiative under the auspices of the Governor’s Division of School To Work (GDSTW), a branch of the Governor’s Office of Workforce Development Policy housed in the Arizona Department of Commerce. Morrison Institute for Public Policy is coordinating a multi-faceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative on behalf of the GDSTW. One component of the evaluation involves surveying seventh grade students.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #9 - Tenth Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Preparation and Work Experience in Arizona Schools
Arizona is in the process of creating a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for Arizona students. Supported by a School To Work (STW) grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education, the state is implementing its STW initiative under the auspices of the Governor’s Division of School To Work (GDSTW), a branch of the Governor’s Office of Workforce Development Policy housed in the Arizona Department of Commerce. Morrison Institute for Public Policy is coordinating a multi-faceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative on behalf of the GDSTW. One component of the evaluation involves surveying tenth grade students.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #10 - Ensuring the Safety of Students in School to Work Activities: Who’s Liable?
The School-to-Work (STW) Opportunities Act of 1994 promotes the development of statewide systems that support workforce and economic development through changes in the ways that students are educated. Jointly funded by the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education, the Act emphasizes school-based and work-based learning and activities designed to connect the two. In order to fulfill the Act’s work-based learning component, employers are recruited to work with students. Recruitment efforts have generated questions from employers concerning their obligations and legal responsibilities should they become involved in STW programs. This paper attempts to clarify these issues.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #11 - How Arizona Public School Counselors Spend Their Time: 1997 Update
Since spring 1996, regional School To Work (STW) partnerships throughout the state have been involved in a variety of activities designed to help create a comprehensive statewide system of school-to-work opportunities for Arizona students. The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 suggests that one element of a statewide system is career counseling for all students. As part of a multi-faceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative coordinated by Morrison Institute for Public Policy on behalf of the Arizona Department of Commerce, School To Work Division (ADC-STW), Arizona public school counselors and their roles and responsibilities are being studied. The hypothesis is that if career guidance is emphasized in the schools (in accordance with 1994 Act), then one might see a shift in counselors’ roles over time to reflect more time spent on counseling activities related to career guidance. Baseline measures of counselor’s time use were established in 1996. This briefing paper provides first year trend data on Arizona school counselors and their use of time.
The state envisions actively promoting GSPED’s (Governor’s Strategic Partnership for Economic Development) vision of economic development, and linking workforce development efforts with GSPED. This means fundamentally changing the way the state does business. And, similar to most "new" initiatives, there are those who embrace the challenges implied and those who prefer the status quo. Prior to forging ahead with a new agenda to link economic and workforce development using GSPED as an organizing framework, the OWDP commissioned a statewide opinion poll to assess public attitudes toward these potentially controversial ideas. This briefing paper summarizes the results of the polling.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #13 - Support for School To Work Remains Strong: Three Year Trends in Public Opinion
The state system --managed under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Commerce, School To Work Division-- is made up of county-based partnerships of schools and businesses. For the fiscal year ending September 1998, ten state-funded regional STW partnerships were operational in all counties except for Maricopa. In June 1998, eight new Maricopa-based partnerships were funded as part of the state’s developing system. Morrison Institute for Public Policy coordinates a multifaceted evaluation of the state’s STW initiative. A key component of the evaluation is a statewide poll on public awareness and opinions of STW as a concept and vehicle for education reform. Baseline data were established in spring 1996. The poll was replicated in spring 1997. This briefing paper highlights findings from the state’s third year of assessing public opinions toward STW.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #14 - Seventh Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Awareness and Exploration Activities in Arizona Schools: Two-Year Trends
Schools, businesses, and communities throughout Arizona are engaged in building a system of School To Work (STW) opportunities for students. An annual survey of seventh grade students is one component of a statewide evaluation of Arizona’s STW system designed and implemented by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy. Seventh graders’ attitudes toward and participation in career activities are target measures because of their relationship to a requirement of the STW Opportunities Act of 1994 [Section 102]. In Arizona, this survey is one of two student surveys used as measures of systemic change. It is posited that as the STW system is built, student awareness of and exposure to career options will grow and participation in career-related activities will increase statewide. This briefing paper presents the results of the second administration of the seventh grade survey. Results are compared to baseline information collected in 1997.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #15 - Tenth Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Preparation and Work Experience in Arizona Schools: Two-Year Trends
For the past three years, Arizona has been engaged in building a system of School To Work (STW) opportunities for students. In accordance with the STW Opportunities Act of 1994, the state system supports creating and expanding options for students to explore careers through a pedagogical approach that combines school-based learning, work-based learning, and activities that connect the two. Arizona’s STW system is supported by a grant from the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education and is administered by the School To Work Division of the Office of Workforce Development Policy under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Commerce. An annual survey of tenth grade students is one component of a statewide evaluation of Arizona’s STW system designed and implemented by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy. Tenth graders’ attitudes toward and participation in career activities are target measures because of their relationship to a requirement of the STW Opportunities Act of 1994 [Section 102]. In Arizona, this survey is one of two student surveys used as measures of systemic change. It is posited that as the STW system is built, student awareness of and exposure to career options will grow and participation in career-related activities will increase statewide. This briefing paper presents the results of the second administration of the tenth grade survey. Results are compared to baseline information collected in 1997.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #16 - Are Arizona Public Schools Making the Best Use of School Counselors? Results of a Three-Year Study of Counselors’ Time Use
Morrison Institute for Public Policy, on behalf of the Arizona Department of Commerce, School To Work Division (ADC-STW), is coordinating a multi-faceted study of the state’s STW initiative. The purpose of the overall study is to document educational changes that occur during the implementation phase of STW. In order to examine these changes, baseline data collected prior to STW implementation are being compared with measures over time. The study seeks to examine what changes, if any, occur over time that can reasonably be associated with STW systembuilding efforts. One facet of the study concerns Arizona public school counselors and their roles and responsibilities. The hypothesis is that if career guidance were to be emphasized in the schools (in accordance with 1994 Act), then one might see a shift in counselors’ roles over time to reflect more time spent on counseling activities related to career guidance. Baseline measures of counselor’s time use were established in 1996 and updated in 1997. This briefing paper provides three-year trend data on Arizona school counselors and is the final study of the series.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #17 - Arizona’s School To Work Initiative: Four-Year Trends in Public Opinion
As one measure of the state’s overall efforts to assess its progress and determine Arizonans’ perceptions of STW, the School To Work Division has commissioned an annual statewide public opinion poll. The purpose of the polling is to assess public attitudes toward STW and determine their level of support for -- or opposition to -- the initiative. This briefing paper highlights findings from the state’s fourth, and final, year of assessing public opinion toward STW. Unless otherwise noted, the paper summarizes changes between baseline data (1996) and the current polling (1999).
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #18 - Seventh Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Awareness and Exploration Activities in Arizona Schools: Three-Year Trends and 1999 Results
Businesses, educators, and community members throughout Arizona have participated in developing a system of School To Work (STW) opportunities for students during the past four years. In accordance with the STW Opportunities Act of 1994, the state system us comprised of partnerships that support School-Based Learning, Work-Based Learning, and activities that connect the two. Arizona's STW system is supported by a grant form the U.S. Department of Labor and Education and administered through the School To Work Division of the Office of Workforce Development Policy under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Commerce. An annual survey of seventh grade students is one component of the statewide evaluation plan designed by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy. Seventh grade is a benchmark year for students' attitudes toward and participation in career activities according to the STW Opportunities Act. This briefing paper presents the results of the third administration of the seventh grade survey. Results are compared to data collected in 1997 and 1998.
Arizona School To Work Briefing Paper #19 - Tenth Grade Students’ Perceptions of Career Awareness and Exploration Activities in Arizona Schools: Two-Year Trends
Businesses, educators, and community members throughout Arizona have participated in developing a system of School To Work (STW) opportunities for students during the past four years. In accordance with the STW Opportunities Act of 1994, the state system us comprised of partnerships that support School-Based Learning, Work-Based Learning, and activities that connect the two. Arizona's STW system is supported by a grant form the U.S. Department of Labor and Education and administered through the School To Work Division of the Office of Workforce Development Policy under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Commerce. An annual survey of seventh grade students is one component of the statewide evaluation plan designed by the Morrison Institute for Public Policy. Seventh grade is a benchmark year for students' attitudes toward and participation in career activities according to the STW Opportunities Act. This briefing paper presents the results of the third administration of the tenth grade survey. Results are compared to data collected in 1997 and 1998.
This report discusses the performance of the Arizona School-to-Work system in meeting the six goals established by the state School-to-Work Division and examines the effects of the system on the involvement and perceptions of Arizona students, school personnel, the public, and employers. The remainder of the report is divided into four sections. These sections provide a brief background of School-to-Work in Arizona, describe Morrison Institute’s method of evaluation of the School-to-Work program over the past five years, present the results of the evaluation, and discuss the results and their meaning.
Beginning in 1996, the City of Phoenix Enterprise Community Job Linkages Initiative set out to increase employment in this distressed area by matching "local people with local jobs." Morrison Institute for Public Policy (School of Public Affairs, Arizona State University) participated in the development of the job linkages initiative and evaluated its two demonstration projects. This report provides the concluding evaluation information for the second project at Friendly House and presents the lessons learned across the job linkages activities.
Because of the urgency of workforce issues and the desire to begin a statewide discussion aout workforce goals and choices, the Governor’s Council on Workforce Policy wanted to understand if, and how, program governance and organization are hampering progress and what changes might be beneficial. The council asked Morrison Institute for Public Policy (School of Public Affairs, College of Public Programs, Arizona State University) to: (1) Explore the strengths and weaknesses of the organization of Arizona’s workforce system, particularly at the state level (2) Review how other states have revamped their systems and connected workforce and economic development (3) Recommend options for improving Arizona’s system During the second half of 2003, Morrison Institute for Public Policy talked with more than 60 workforce professionals, business people, and workforce board members across Arizona either individually or in small groups, researched other states’ approaches through interviews with officials in other states and national organizations, analyzed responses to an online survey of selected local workforce investment board members, and reviewed a wide variety of materials on economic, workforce, and community development. This report is the first of many steps for Arizona to reflect and act on workforce development governance and its system, because as Thurgood Marshall said, "You can’t stand still. You must move, and if you don’t move, they will run over you."
This book is designed to be a "cookbook" for water evaluators who would like to be able to do a good job evaluating their water programs for decision-making, but who don't know a lot about statistics.
Some Best Bets in Residential Water Conservation - Results of Multivariate Regression Analysis, City of Phoenix, 1990-1996
In a rapidly growing desert metropolis such as Phoenix, the question of which water conservation measures and factors actually save water and which do not is an obviously important one. The water-related decisions made today and in the years to come will have lasting impact on the future of this area, including upon its sustainability. Estimates from the City of Phoenix suggest that, in non-SRP-areas, water demand will exceed water supply by the year 2025 -- absent droughts or intervention. This report documents and analyzes the results of a multivariate regression analysis designed to estimate the effects on residential, single-family water consumption of a host of factors, particularly water conservation policies.
Does H20 = Growth in Arizona? That is how many people view the water-growth equation -- any introduction of "new" water supplies inevitably stimulates population growth and economic activity. However, the report by Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Growth on the Coconino Plateau, offers some surprisingly contrary conclusions. Completed on behalf of Arizona Department of Water Resources and the Coconino Plateau Watershed, this document is relevant for all regions of rural Arizona. Among the findings: - Some rural areas in the West have constructed major water supply projects only to see most of their towns languish, not prosper. - New water infrastructure in growing rural counties hasn't affected the size so much as the pattern of new development. - Leapfrog sprawl into unincorporated areas has been discouraged in regions where cities and towns hold control over the distribution of new water supplies. Bottom line, water won't automatically produce population growth. But planning for water - how it is supplied and governed - does offer a useful tool for managing future growth. Moreover, it can provide some measure of protection for the environment. We believe this report has important application well beyond northern Arizona. By providing original research and analysis on the water-growth equation, this report helps resolve one of Arizona's most critical issues. As a result, public policy discussions in the future will be able to focus on the state's most important growth drivers and how they can be managed.
The Phoenix metropolitan area is known worldwide for the rapid and continuous expansion of its population, economy, and development of desert land. Even during recessionary periods, it has continued to grow. Leaders in other metropolitan areas envy this achievement and the many benefits it has created for Valley residents. But some members of our region, both leaders and lay people alike, consider the Valley’s phenomenal growth to be a mixed blessing. Indeed, they would say we are plagued by success. The purpose of this brief paper is to create a framework for discussion of how our region’s future growth can embody quality. It is not intended to be a comprehensive Morrison Institute for Public Policy treatment of the myriad issues of urban growth. Because of this paper’s brevity, some important details about growth are not included. Fortunately, detailed studies of the Valley’s growth have been done before (e.g., by Gruen Associates/Maricopa Association of Governments in 1975 and the Morrison Institute in 1988). Instead, this paper identifies key concepts and suggests questions to be used as a point of departure for steering a future course.
There is no question that a pattern of growth has helped fuel the Phoenix area's much-envied economic and population boom. In addition to being the vibrant urban center of the state, the Valley is a wealthy metropolitan area with clean, globally competitive industries, and is the chosen home for more than 50,000 new residents each year. Nevertheless, despite its rising status as a region, metropolitan Phoenix still has a woefully under-funded and inadequate transit system. The topic of transit presents an opportunity to deliberate about and consciously decide the forms of urban development the Valley wishes to maintain, develop, create, or restore.
Believing that voters might support transit if they felt like an integral part of the transit proposal decision-making process, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce's Valleywide Transit Task Force set out in early 1995 to initiate a bottom-up process which would enable people to say, "here's what we want." The Task Force agreed that the first step in the process was to initiate a new dialogue. the Morrison Institute for Public Policy was asked to write a briefing paper, which would re-invigorate the transit debate. The resulting report, "Transit in the Valley: Where Do We Go From Here?" painted a bleak picture of the Valley's existing transit system and challenged many long-held conventional wisdoms. The dialogue had begun. The report was then presented to the citizens of 17 Valley cities and towns for their consideration in 16 public meetings sponsored by cities and their local Chambers of Commerce. In community forums conducted between October 1996 and February 1997, more than 500 Valley residents discussed the Valley's transit future. This document summarizes the questionnaire responses by 501 people who attended the forums.
This project, as part of Arizona State University's Community Outreach Partnership Center grant from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, examines the location of industry clusters in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. The objective is to find out if there are identifiable concentrations of industry in Phoenix' inner city areas.
March 2003 / From the 1950s onward, Scottsdale combined upscale resorts, an outstanding arts and culture scene, and a spectacular natural setting to create a cachet that few other cities anywhere in the nation could match. So powerful was the Scottsdale name that the city focused on competing nationally with other brandname towns, rather than operating within the context of metropolitan Phoenix. To borrow a phrase from the software world, "Scottsdale 1.0" was a great success. But the shelf life of great places is getting shorter, and now it’s time to start working on "Scottsdale 2.0," which will necessarily be a very different place than Scottsdale 1.0.
The Treasure of the Superstitions - Scenarios for the Future of Superstition Vistas: Arizona's Premier State Trust Land in the Southeast Valley
One cannot look at the Superstition Mountains without thinking of the legend of Jacob Waltz and his burro searching for lost gold. Today, however, it’s clear that the treasure of these storied mountains lies not in mythical gold, but in a more tangible commodity -- land. Growth in greater Phoenix and the state continues to stoke the hunger for developable property. The Treasure of the Superstitions is the result of a group of public and private entities wanting to think in new ways about Arizona’s unique state trust land in northern Pinal County. It is not a "plan" for Superstition Vistas. Instead, this report seeks to encourage stakeholders to develop an enduring vision. To that end, The Treasure of the Superstitions lays out three scenarios for the area’s future. Each shows how policy decisions made in the near future could influence development over the next 50 to 60 years.
A New Policy Direction and Four Guidelines for Valley of the Sun United Way’s Investment in the Community
After decades of charitable generosity in the Valley of the Sun, the 1990s have brought new challenges which require a re-assessment of priorities. Facing continued and rapid population growth, and continuing efforts to reform and restrain public spending on many levels, Valley of the Sun United Way initiated a strategic planning process in 1996 to identify guiding principles and key issues for the future. In late 1997, Valley of the Sun United Way, with funding support from Honeywell, Inc., asked the Morrison Institute for Public Policy to identify the most critical public issues facing the community and to determine where United Way could have the greatest impact with its investments by targeting its funding and support. To do this, the Institute conducted 49 one-on-one interviews with opinion leaders from the business, government, and non-profit sectors in the Phoenix Metro area, held one focus group with a subset of the interviewees, and reviewed a large body of published research and surveys in Arizona and the U.S.
Artist Wayne Rainey’s Shade magazine is a good sign for the Maricopa region. The bi-monthly publication covers contemporary art and culture, supports downtown redevelopment efforts, and works with many institutions to encourage the arts. However, as promising as Shade and other inventive ventures are, the fact remains that the Maricopa metropolitan region is just waking up to the need to recognize and support arts and culture as a critical contributor to a knowledge economy.
Arizona Ideas includes notions large and small, homegrown and borrowed, current and historical. From A-Z, every one --whether originally born here or adapted from elsewhere-- contributes to the state’s competitive position. Arizona Ideas also explores the roots of Arizona’s tradition of self-criticism --some call it a sense of insecurity or inferiority in comparison to other places-- that often surfaces in discussions of public policy. This observation has provoked considerable debate, but few would deny that this perspective exists. It is time to debate this idiosyncrasy out in the open and find better ways of moving the state ahead.
The March 2006 responses to a statewide representative telephone survey show that a majority of Arizonans see science and technology research as a source of high-paying jobs and are every bit as interested in science and technology as leaders are. Arizonans "get" the benefits of a science and technology-based future and the power of science and technology to spawn desirable employment opportunities. Some cautions emerge as well, but even so, most Arizonans look to science and technology as integral to a bright economic future.
States have always administered federal programs. But, states usually have had very little say in how they carried out programs. All states could generally do was follow the rules laid out by federal agencies. But now, devolution is giving states more power over programs. And, in general, Americans have said that they approve of the idea. A 1998 nationwide poll, funded by The W.K. Kellogg Foundation, showed that a majority of Americans perceive devolution to be a positive development for the country.
It’s true that, throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. And, indeed, most schools with such demographics do have a hard time. But some such schools --beat the odds-- and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? What is the DNA of a successful -beat-the-odds-- school? And can the components of success be replicated elsewhere, in schools which so far have fallen victim to the odds? Using the inspiration --and the methodology-- of business guru, Jim Collins, author of the best-selling book, Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap ... and Others Don’t, we found 12 elementary and middle schools in Arizona – schools whose students are mostly Latino and mostly poor -- that are "beating the odds" on reading and math scores. And, as Collins did with successful companies, we compared them with similar schools -- also with students who are mostly Latino and poor, sometimes even in the same school district -- that are performing poorly.